Long-haul and Short-haul Lightwave Systems

Application of fiber optic communication in telecommunication domain can be broadly grouped into two categories, long-haul and short-haul. This classification is done based on whether…

Return to Zero (RZ) and Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) formats

Design of an optical communication system starts by deciding how to convert electrical signals to optical signals. The output light from the source is modulated…

Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

Spoken words, pictures or gestures can be used to communicate, generally grouped as verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. Sometimes effective communication comes from silence…

Surface Emitting LEDs in Fiber Optic Communication

Light Emitting Diodes are the optical sources that made the fiber optic communication possible. Developments in LEDs are in parallel to the historical developments in…

Coherent and Incoherent Light Sources

In Optical transmission, coherent light sources have clear advantages over incoherent light sources. The word Coherent means logical or consistent or clear. Incoherent is opposite…

Specification of Polyethylene Color Masterbatch

Polyethylene is the commonly used sheathing compound for optical fiber cables for outdoor installation. Polyethylene comes in different grades and different specific gravities. According to…

TDM and FDM

Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) is suitable to support both analog and digital signal transmission. FDM is used in broadcasting of radio and television channels. On…

Speed of Light in Vacuum, Glass and Water

As a child, looking at the sun rays that come through one of the glass tile among the tiled roof of our ancestral home I…

Chirped Return to Zero Format

Introduction of Return to Zero formats have contributed to the progress in optical communication systems. RZ Format started getting popularity in 1999. RZ formats helps…

Disadvantages of Fiber optic Systems

Similar to the advantages of fiber optics, disadvantages of fiber optics is another term searched more in the internet. I always wonder why somebody should…