Albania

Albania, the European country, which was ruled by Turkey’s Ottoman Emperors were freed in 1912, but only until it was powered by the Italy in 1939 followed by the Germans in 1943. Post World War II saw Communist revolution in the country and the party allied itself with the mighty Soviet Union and later with China. Albanian Governments have tried to improve communication infrastructure in the country. New investments have been made in the sector. Still the teledensity is only around 10 fixed lines per 100 people. As in any other country, mobile telephones are commonly used by people in Albania. Mobile density stands at 116.2 per 100 people indicating a good growth and popularity of mobile communication services in Albania.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan’s telecommunications sector is one of the poorly organized and developed among other countries and in comparison with its neighbors. One of the major reasons…

Development of Low Attenuation Optical Fibers

A major breakthrough in optical communication happened when Charles K Kao and George A. Hockam of Standard Telephones and Cables, a British company proposed and…

Introduction to Fiber Optic Sensors

Optical fibers have many uses in remote sensing. Either the sensor is itself can be an optical fiber or optical fiber can be used to…

Fiber Optic Connector Types

ST is the most common fiber optic connector for multimode networks such as those used in buildings and campuses. ST connector has a long cylindrical…

Advantages of Fiber Optic Systems

One of the most searched topics in fiber optics is “what are the advantages and disadvantages of fiber optics?” Of course I can understand when…

First Generation Optical Transmission Windows

Fiber optic communication systems use different wavelength ranges for transmission of data. These wavelengths are called operating windows. The selection of wavelength from the spectrum…

Historical moments and Developments in Fiber Optics

You might have noticed in “Introduction to Optical Fibers and Fiber Optics“, we used the term light pipe to describe an optical fiber. An optical…

Introduction to Fiber Optic Communication

Optical fibers are used as medium for telecommunication and computer networking because of their inherent properties such as flexibility. Optical fiber can be grouped together…

Advantages of Optical Fibers Over Copper Wires

Optical fiber cables have clear advantages over its ancestor copper wire cables. Some of the advantages of optical fiber communication with respect to copper wire…