Environmentally Sealed Splice Closures

Optical fibers are protected inside joint closures, also known as splice closures in the outside plant. Spliced fibers shall be protected from environmental hazards such…

Multimode Fiber Materials

For telecommunication purpose optical fibers, materials used to make Multimode fiber is same as that used to make Singlemode fiber, that is Silica glass. However…

Table of Ethernet Standards

Commercially introduced in 1980, Ethernet is a network technology of computers for Local Area Networks and Metropolitan Area Networks. The first ethernet standard introduced in…

Edge Emitting LEDs in Optical Communication

Light Emitting Diodes are the optical devices that made the fiber optic communication possible. Developments in LED researches are in parallel to the historical developments…

Introduction to Optical Transmitters

The opto-electronic device that converts the electrical signal in to optical signal is called optical transmitter. An optical transmitter received the incoming electrical signals, processes…

How to Decide Between Optical Fiber and Copper Cables?

The choice between optical fiber cables and copper telephone cables for transmission for a particular telecommunication system is made based on a number of trade-offs….

Use of Multimode fibers in Data Center Cabling System

These days, the data traffic explosion is happening due to the growth of data centers. The Data centers being managed by hyperscale, Web 2.0 companies such as Google, Facebook, Amazon, Apple and Microsoft etc. are constantly demanding and moving toward faster speeds and higher densities. Demand for higher density had resulted in redesigning of the concepts in fiber optic cable designs. More and more fiber cable manufacturers are entering in to the high density high fiber count cables. Speeds as high as 25G and 100G Ethernet have already become mainstream in data centers, and the industry is working collaboratively on next-generation Ethernet development, such as 200G and 400G Ethernet. Experiments are going on to achieve 800G and above transmission rates. While optical fiber itself can carry such amounts of data, associated equipment capable to support such data rates shall be developed. For long-haul transmission, systems to support 40G and 100G can easily be deployed using single mode fiber, data centers look for cost effective alternatives using multimode fibers.


Armenia, the former Soviet Republic bordering Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia and Iran has more than 3 million population. Armenia’s long time conflict with its former Soviet partner and neighboring country Azerbaijan and subsequent sanctions imposed on it by Turkey had thwarted its economic growth after independence from Russian Communist regime.┬áMobile phone subscribers are more than 3.3 million but fixed telephone numbers around less than 0.6 million. Mobile phone subscribers have almost reached the saturation level considering the population of Armenia.


Argentina with a population of more than 41 million is often considered as one of the promising emerging market for fiber optic business. There are 11 million houses and more than 10.14 million fixed telephone lines in Argentina. Nominal GDP 621 billion USD, equivalent to 15,000 USD per person. Investment in telecom sector is estimated at 5 billion USD. One of the attractive factor for fiber optic business is that Argentina has more than 6.3 million fixed line broadband subscribers.


Angola, the West African nation, bordered by Namibia, Zambia, and D.R Congo has been in news recently when telecom operators in the country invested in building next generation networks. Political unrest due to civil war immediately after getting independence from Portugal had stalled the growth of Angola. Angola’s growth starts from 2002. The country that lost almost 8 percent of its population to the bloody civil war is now on track of building modern communication infrastructures.