Lightwave systems for communication

Communication system transmits information from one place to another place separated by a distance, sometimes a few meters and sometimes thousands of kilometers. Communication between…

Why Multiplexing is Necessary?

A digital voice channel operates at 64 kilobits per second. Most fiber-optic communication systems are capable of transmitting at a rate of more than 10…

Long-haul and Short-haul Lightwave Systems

Application of fiber optic communication in telecommunication domain can be broadly grouped into two categories, long-haul and short-haul. This classification is done based on whether…

Return to Zero (RZ) and Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) formats

Design of an optical communication system starts by deciding how to convert electrical signals to optical signals. The output light from the source is modulated…

Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

Spoken words, pictures or gestures can be used to communicate, generally grouped as verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. Sometimes effective communication comes from silence…

TDM and FDM

Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) is suitable to support both analog and digital signal transmission. FDM is used in broadcasting of radio and television channels. On…

Chirped Return to Zero Format

Introduction of Return to Zero formats have contributed to the progress in optical communication systems. RZ Format started getting popularity in 1999. RZ formats helps…

Well Known Advantages of Optical Fiber Cables

Weight and Size of Optical fiber cable One of the most attractive features of optical fiber cable is its reduced weight and size compared to…

Guided and Unguided Optical Communication

Optical communication systems can be broadly classified into two categories based on the concept of guiding such as guided and unguided. In Guided optical communication…

Human Communication

Communication is the flow or exchange of information within people or a group of people. All living organizms communicate each other as part of their…